Damaris William
February 12, 2020
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Conservation agriculture in arid areas



ADM. NO. P2310096902014

A Research Proposal submitted to the school of spatial Planning and Natural resources management for the requirements for the award of a degree in BSC.WATER RESOUCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT in Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology.

December, 2016

I declare that this is my own original work and it has not been submitted in this form by anyone for any academic award of degree, diploma or certificate in any institution.
Damaris William
Sign .. Date .

This research proposal has been submitted for examination with my recommendation as the university supervisor.
Dr. Zackary Kinaro
Sing. Date

I pass my profound appreciation to Dr. Zackary Kinaro, my supervisor for his unconditional support he gave to me, my parents for their tireless financial and moral support and prayers and any other person who contributed in any means towards the success of this project. Above all I thank God for this far He has seen me through this project proposal.

The study is introduced with background information concerning water scarcity as described by the Swedish hydrologist, Gardner; it is the lack of sufficient, clean, safe and accessible water resources for meeting water needs in a region. It is discussed in the global context, Africa, Kenya and the local context of how water scarcity has affected crop production. It is followed by justification of the study, and involves 3 objectives which involve the effects of water scarcity, strategies used in management of water scarcity and objective 3 which involves the relationship between water scarcity and agriculture. Significance of the study, limitation and assumptions of the study concludes chapter 1.
Chapter 2 involves literature review of the study which discusses the impacts of water scarcity as reduced yields, increased distances in search of water, crop failure and increased food insecurity. Strategies used in management of water scarcity and coping with agriculture such as soil management practices, water management strategies, climate smart technologies, rain water harvesting techniques and use of organic fertilizers to maximize yields. The link between water scarcity and agriculture is also discussed and summarized in a flow diagram.
Chapter 3 entails methodology which has study area, data collection tools and methods, analysis, research design and data validity and reliability. The research design used in the study is descriptive and the sampling design is simple random sampling.
The study is finalized with references, appendix and a sample of data collection tool to be used. That is, a questionnaire and an interview schedule.

Water scarcity as described by the Swedish hydrologist, Gardner, it is the lack of sufficient, clean ,safe and accessible water resources for meeting water needs in a region. It is estimated that most people do not meet their daily requirement which is approximately 100litres/ day/ person for basic drinking, washing, cooking and bathing used 5-20 times for agricultural, industrial, energy production and meeting other demands. (Gardener and Engelmann 1997)
Water is thus an essential component in planet life systems. However, water scarcity is one of the most difficult issues challenging different sectors of energy, industry, economy and agriculture among others been seriously affected thus leading to food insecurity in global, regional and local scales. In Kenya, large parts of dry climatic regions are mostly affected due to drought, desertification, prolonged dry spell and lack of permanent sources of water which could supplement low rainfall experienced in such places. Thus, due to the problem of water scarcity greater effects are felt on agriculture due to lack of water for watering crops as agriculture depends 70% on water more than the other competing demands of domestic, industrial and environmental demand.( International water management institute,2016)

According to Richard T, (2008), food production has improved the nutrition of millions in developing world, life expectancy is continuously increasing and the percentage of those who are undernourished continues to decline. Contrary, due to some limiting factors, food production is not maximized. This could be possibly due to a major factor of water shortage which cause stress, limit growth, reproduction and affect the survival of crops and livestock. Without adequate water, development in difficult. Thus, water is one of the components which contribute to the meeting of our countries Sustainable Development Goals. (Hasphanol, 1996)
India has been noted as one of the sub Saharan countries with the highest water shortages and the most vulnerable to future water stress which is beyond the agricultural and economic challenges but also lead to changes in social dynamics. For example parents break their daughters’ vows in fear of letting them get married and walk long distances to fetch water. The water shortage threatens agricultural production, increases households and business expenses thus draining the local treasuries.
Thus, research prove that, most people dependent on agriculture and living in water scarce areas are mostly poor. This may be due to inadequate water to grow crops and provide for livestock which result to low income, depletion of backup resources driving them into deep debts. (Water Economics and Growing Blue, 2013)
Due to increasing demand of water alongside other driving forces, it is said that by 2050,most of the countries will suffer from severe water scarcity more than how it is today ,Kenya been one of them. (Callas & Martinom, 2010). Due to this, agriculture is one of the sectors which will be adversely affected thus threatening our countries food security which may lead to many cases of undernourishment or dependencies on relief food if actions are not taken in advance. (International Framework for Relief Aid (IFRA), Nairobi). It is therefore necessary to determine the impacts water scarcity which could help to develop strategies to address water scarcity and agriculture.

According to Malthus theory, food production is a necessity for the existence of man. It forms its basis on crop and animal production as the foundation of economic development. (Pranav, 2010) When water is inadequate, people tend to depend on dry farming. Land starved of water is hard and low in fertility thus the yields got from such land is of low quality and require substantial efforts. In addition, the ability to induce new technologies is limited and crop seasons are rigidly- time bound depending on the rainfall patterns of such areas.

Ndunguni sub location , which is located in Kitui county is an area that experience a prolonged dry spell, little rainfall of about 500mm – 1000mm per annum, poorly distributed rainfall and high temperatures of about 24°C per annum leading to increased evaporation rates of surface water sources thus accelerating scarcity. This adversely affects agriculture due to low yields of low quality. Thus, developing strategies to help reduce the impacts of water scarcity and help to achieve food security in this area is necessary. (Kitui County Development Action Plan 2010)


To assess the impacts of water scarcity on Crop production in Ndunguni sub location.
1. To assess the effects of water scarcity in crop production in Ndunguni sub location.
2. To assess the strategies commonly used to cope with water scarcity in Ndunguni sub location.
3. To assess the relationship between water scarcity and agricultural crop production in Ndunguni Sub location.

1. What are the effects of water scarcity on agricultural production in Ndunguni sub location?
2. What strategies are commonly used to manage water scarcity in Ndunguni sub location?
3. How is water scarcity related to agricultural crop production in Ndunguni sub location?

Water availability is the backbone of all forms of agricultural production. A lot of efforts have been invested on improving agricultural production through soil and water conservation, use of drought resilient crops and availing water on Arid and Semi-Arid Areas but little has been done in Ndunguni sub location. Thus, research on water scarcity and its impacts on agricultural crop production in this area have not been intensively addressed.
Ndunguni Sub location was selected because of its vulnerability to drought. Farmers of this area practice mixed farming and mainly depend on rains that fall on March to May (long rains) and November to December (short rains). According to IISD, farmers are not able to access information on agriculture. This research therefore, brings new insights to the community on how water scarcity impacts on crop production thus help agriculturalists in Ndunguni to improve in crop production through sound agricultural and water management strategies.

The purpose of this study is to bring a better understanding of the central role played by water in agricultural crop production and the problems associated with its scarcity which will help to come up with a strategy to help in addressing this problem adequately.
The study covers in Ndunguni sub location which is located in Kitui rural sub county within Kitui County. Which has six villages namely as Ndunguni, Kathome, Nyanyaa, Makusya and Masimba village. Ndunguni village covers an approximate Area of 75.4km2 with a population of 7,320. (NBS, 2016). The research will involve data collection on crop production in Ndunguni sub location and on how water scarcity has impacted on it.

1. The study is limited to crop production thus much efforts and concentration is put on it unlike any other kind of agricultural production.
2. The time available for the research was limited and therefore the study only covered a small area of Ndunguni sub location.
3. The funds to carry out the research were inadequate to cover a larger area.
4. The study did not cover the water quality requirements for agricultural purpose as water quality analysis was not done.

All the factors affecting agricultural production besides water scarcity are held constant for this study. They can be pest and diseases, soil fertility, crop genetics and soil structure. Therefore, the research on crop production depends on the availability of water.

The following terms have been used interchangeably throughout this research to mean the following;
Agriculture is a substitute name for farming used to mean growing, processing and providing food, fiber, energy (biofuels) or any other product used to meet our daily basic needs and enhancing lives.( National Research Council of the National Academies, USA, 2010). This study will be assessing water scarcity and agriculture. Agricultural crop production will therefore be used to refer to growing of agricultural crops on farms to give quantifiable yields.
Water scarcity is defined as the lack of adequate, accessible, safe water resources to meet the water demands of people in a given region.
Water stress can also be used to refer to a situation where resources of fresh water for different uses are been overexploited and may result into its depletion.
Water shortage may be a temporary or long term situation of lack of water that may be caused by climate change, aridity, droughts or floods, pollution and population increase which cause overexploitation of water resources.
Water crisis is a situation where the available potable, unpolluted water within a region is less than that regions demand. (Natural resources planning and management, 2016)
2.2 Effects of water scarcity on agricultural crop production
2.2.1Low agricultural yields
Agriculture is a top priority in the district sector mainly being crop and animal production and little efforts on aquaculture and apiculture. This has come about due to water scarcity.
Mainly, agriculture is done for subsistence purposes with major crops such as maize, millet, sorghum, beans, sweet potatoes, green grams ( Dengu), cow peas, kales ,pigeon peas (bahazi), ” Njahi”, Cotton, chilies ,cucumbers and melons along with agro forestry with most common plants as mangoes, bananas, oranges, Avocadoes lemons and cassava.( Kitui County Development Action Plan, 2010 )
Due to little rains and dependency on rain fed agriculture, people tend to use substantial efforts and other strategies to ensure maximum yields are obtained but all these efforts are not rewarding as most farms yield very little such that even the subsistence food requirements are not met. A field study will be carried out at phase ii of the project to establish the production over years on the pieces of land owned by farmers within Ndunguni sub location. (Kitui County DEAP, 2010)

2.2.2. Increased walking distances in search of Water
People and animals tend to walk a long distance of more than a kilometer in search of water. This results due to prolonged dry spell and inadequate and poorly distributed rainfall as the existing water pans, earth dams, and rivers dry up. As most of the rivers are seasonal, they dry up and thus call for people and animals to get water from scooping sand wells from the dry river bed which is contaminated and unsafe for domestic use and watering of fruits and vegetables.
According to World Health Organization, the average distance to the nearest water source should be about 200M which is adequate and safe for any use as per its standards.
2.2.3. Reduced biodiversity
Only the crop biodiversity with suitable features can thrive and do well in arid and semi-arid areas. Cereals such as maize, millet ,sorghum and other crops like cassava, sweet potatoes, melons, cucumbers or other drought resistant crops are less adversely affected by little rains, thus may survive in these areas. Others include bananas, mango and pawpaw but are limited to seasonal production. (Kenya Food Security Steering Group, 2011).

2.2.4 Low agricultural income
Most farming systems in these areas are subsistence. However this may not mean that completely there are no sales. These products are sold locally within the existing markets but because they may be of lower qualities or limited, they may not generate a good profit to the farmers. Others are not even enough to cater for daily basic needs due to inadequate harvest that could be sold to supplement other necessities. This lead to high poverty levels of farmers in these areas as they struggle to meet their basic needs with the little income obtained from crop sales.

2.2.5 Effects on health and nutrition of farmers
When there is food insecurity, farmers are not able to meet their daily balanced diet. This affects their health and their ability to work on farms to increase their produce. The same occurs when a sickly population is left to provide labor on farms as the produce may not be quality. This worsens the condition in which crop production is to be done.

2.3.1 Diversification of agriculture
Most farmers try to practice both crop and animal production basically on small scale farming to help maximize their incomes. Crop production is basically intercropping to ensure that when a particular crop is affected by drought the other resilient crop will survive and compensate for the other. This helps in climate adaptability and reduces the risks of spread of drought. These crops intercropped include, maize, beans, sorghum, pigeon peas, millet, mangoes, bananas, citrus fruits, sweet potatoes, kales and spinach.
Mostly crop farming in water scarce areas is usually dry farming. (Kuria, Gachari, Macharia, & Mungai, 2012). A few horticultural activities are done along the river banks and other shallow wells and are done through bucket irrigation especially during the dry seasons. The crops involved include kales, cabbage, sugarcane, and maize growing through pumping of water from wells for overhead irrigation. (Kenya Food Security Steering Group, 2009).
2.3.2 Water management strategies
Most agricultural practices carried out in areas of water crisis should aim at conserving water and maximizing yields. However limited and unreliable rainfall limits farming in these areas. Some researches confirm that most of the farming land is left idle for some time so as improve in its fertility.
Most areas practice drip irrigation so as to conserve water and also ensure terraces within their farms to hold runoff water which can be used by crops in growing. The available water resources either surface or underground need to be conserved and well utilized to ensure sustainable yields. Water pans, sand dams or rock catchments should be used to provide water for irrigation. (Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, 2009).

2.3.3 Rain water harvesting strategies
During long and heavy rains, extension of water harvesting techniques helps in obtaining of water for use and other agricultural practices. It can be achieved through rainwater catchment systems, weirs and dams and water harvesting techniques where rainfall is inconsistent. This method is advantageous because the water quality is good for agriculture and cheap to obtain. (NEMA, 2009)
2.4 Climate smart agriculture strategies
Climate smart agriculture can be defined as one of the sustainable agricultural practices which aim at conserving water and soil at the same time maximizing outputs and use of technologies which are environmentally friendly by seeking the reduction of carbon iv oxide emission through increased carbon sequestration practices such as agroforestry, use of organic fertilizers to minimize water and soil pollution and reduction of evaporation and land wastage practices so as to meet food security.(global science conference,2015 ) they include;

2.4.1Buffer strips
These are permanent vegetation controls made on land for the purpose of air, soil and water quality control. They help in trapping sediments, enhancing infiltration of runoff and surface water with their root systems. They can be grass, trees or shrubs which help to stabilize the environment and when undisturbed they lead to natural re-vegetation of the area helping in soil management. (Buffer strip encyclopedia, 2016)

2.4.2 Terracing
This method of land management helps in both conservation of water and soil especially on steep slopes. Elephant grass from the strips are cut and fed to animals and after that, the animal droppings are used to produce manure for growing crops. They are thus reinforced by grass bands and heaped to prevent them from been washed away by runoff by increasing infiltration.
The picture below in plate 1, Shows an example of terrace within a banana farm used to control erosion as an example of climate smart agriculture.

Plate 1 showing a banana farm with a terrace. Source. CSA Uganda, pdf 2015.
2.4.3 Green houses
Green houses which are a bit modernized form of agriculture which help to maximize sunlight from the sun to enhance growth of crops they are very efficient on small scale lands and give high yields. This CSA technology helps in intensification of agriculture and ensures high yields over a small piece of land.
2.4.4 Irrigation
This is a method of transporting water to crops in order to maximize the amount of crops produced. Irrigation substitutes dry farming especially in areas experiencing low rainfall. One of the most efficient irrigation is drip irrigation done on small scale farms and help in maximizing water for the use by the plant as it involves direct provision of water to the plant roots. However, drip irrigation may not be effective on large scale farms thus furrow irrigation is alternatively used. These methods minimize alkalization and salinization of soils which affect crop production over time. (Lecture notes; agricultural land conservation, 2016)
2.4.5 Soil management strategies
Black cotton soils, sandy soils and those with sedimentary rocks are usually low in fertility. (Kenya Food Security Steering Group, 2009). The need to improve their fertility should be based on maintaining its structure and use of organic manure from crop and animal residues. Farmers who cannot afford fertilizers tend to use no fertilizer which led to low yields. Traditional methods of tilling unlike mechanization help to maintain soil structure. Terraces, farming along the contours and cutoffs also control soil erosion.

2.5 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
Conceptual framework shows the relationship between the dependent (crop production) and independent variables (water scarcity) involved in this study. Causes of water scarcity may be briefly stated as population increase which poses demand for water, climate change, aridity and inadequate rainfall.
According to the water project, water scarcity impacts on food production due to lack of water for irrigation. The growing population pose an increased demand for food thus crop production need to be enhanced. On areas with water crisis irrigation helps to supplement crop production. . When water is scarce, crop production is limited to seasons which may pose food insecurity in such areas during drought.
This study is based on Malthus theory of Robert Malthus1798. According to him, human population grows exponentially (double rate) while food production grows at an arithmetic rate. When this happens, population is more than food produced which might bring into catastrophes. He therefore derived population positive checks like war, diseases, drought and famine among other checks to reduce population. This was to ensure there is no catastrophe due to lack of food. All over the world, the population is growing and there is need for food supply to cater for the growing population. The food production is a factor of water availability, In Dunguni, there is inadequate food supply to the population especially during the dry season due to lack of water. Fig 1.shows the relationship between the dependent and independed variables.



Kitui County is located in the lower eastern region and bordered by Tana River County, in the East, Makueni County in the West, Taita Taveta County in the South and Tharaka Nithi and Embu in the North. It has 8 sub- counties which are kitui West, Kitui Central, Kitui East, Kitui Rural and Kitui South and Mwingi divided into Mwingi North, Central and West.Yatta Ward is located in Kitui- Rural Sub County. It lies between latitude of 1.5500° and a longitude of37.8500°.
The area experiences water scarcity due to little rainfall, aridity and prolonged dry spells and high temperatures which accelerate evaporation thus affecting agricultural production leading to crop failure and reduced yields among other effects. These semi-arid zones have good potential for agricultural development and are currently either cultivated or lying fallow under woodland. Due to population pressure the less fertile semi-arid ranching areas are currently used for food crops production and livestock keeping which leads to frequent crop failures as these areas are not suitable for growing of certain crops under rain-fed agriculture.

The climate of the Kitui County is hot and dry with unreliable rainfall. The climate falls under two climatic zones, arid and semi-arid, with most of the County being classified as arid. The County experiences high temperatures throughout the year, ranging from 14°C to 34°C. The hot months are between September and October to January and February. The maximum mean annual temperature ranges between 26°C and 34°C whereas the minimum mean annual temperature ranges between 14°C and 22°C. July is the coldest month with temperatures falling to a low of 14°C while the month of September is normally the hottest with temperature rising to a high of 34°C.

The rainfall pattern is bi-modal with two rainy seasons annually. The long rains fall in the months of March to May. The short rains which form the second rainy season fall between October and December and are more reliable. The rest of the year is dry and the annual rainfall ranges between 250mm-1050 mm per annum with 40% reliability for the long rains and 66% reliability for the short rains. Rainfall is highly unpredictable from year to year. (Kitui county CIDP,2013)

Fig 2. Showing Kitui County in the national context.

Figure 3. Showing Ndunguni sub location in Kitui rural sub county.

3.2.1 Study design
This study employed a survey research design. Cording to Orodho (2005), a survey concerns describing, recording, analyzing and reporting existing conditions. An agronomic survey was done where crop calendar, farming practices and production systems were captured. Data collection was done from smallholder farmers within the sub location, chef, agricultural officers and agricultural project owners.
The study aims at developing strategies to cope with water stress and scarcity to help achieve food security in this area or help areas with the same problems. This design will involve both secondary and primary data.
3.2.2 Target Population
Population is a group of individuals or species with similar characteristics or traits. In a research, a population may be the target (theoretical) population which the researcher is interested in generalizing information and usually has varying characteristics or the accessible population. (, 2009). This study targeted farmers and agricultural officers of Ndunguni sub location in which according to research there are two agricultural officers, 10 large scale farmers and several small scale farmers. (Kitui county action development plan, 2010)
3.2.3 Sample size and sampling procedure
Simple randomized sampling from a sample frame of farmers in the study area was used. This involves selection of small samples from a group of population with each member having equal chances of been selected. It is usually done without replacement to prevent members been selected twice and prevents biasness. (Wiki loves Africa, 2016). 50 questionnaires were administered to the whole sub location, of farmers selected randomly.

3.2.4Data collection tools
In this study, both secondary and primary data were used. Primary data was obtained from the field using structured questionnaires, observation checklists, camera and structured interview schedule from households and key informants like farmers, agricultural project developers and agricultural officers.
The secondary data was obtained from documented, published, unpublished online sources to beef up the research.

For Objective 1, questionnaires, observation and photography was used. Plate 2.below shows a questionnaires filing session to Ikulumbutuni farmers aggregation center on 31st December 2016. The chairman said that there was no harvest for the past 3years and thus the grain aggregation center had nothing in their stores.
Plate 2. Data collection on progress.
Objective 2 data will be collected using semi structured interview schedule and observation which will be analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Objective 3. Information will be based on questionnaires and majorly secondary data sources and analyzed using inferential statistics.

All the data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistical tools of percentages and means and presented in graphs, tables and pie charts ass summarized in Table 2 below.

Table 1. Showing data collection methods, analysis, tools and presentation.
Research question

What are the causes of water scarcity in Ndunguni?
Structured questionnaire
Descriptive analysis
Graphs and pie charts

How do farmers in Ndunguni cope with water scarcity?
Semi-structured interview schedule
Farmers ,agricultural project developers
Descriptive analysis
Pie charts, tables and graphs

What is the relationship between water scarcity and agriculture in Ndunguni?
Structured questionnaire
Agricultural officers,
Inferential statistics
Pie charts, tables and graphs

This chapter entails the findings from the data collected during this research and are presented as per the objectives, effects of water scarcity on agriculture, how to cope with water scarcity and the relationship between water scarcity and agriculture.
4.2 Causes of water scarcity on agriculture.
Figure 4 . Below shows the causes of water scarcity on agriculture.

The sources of water scarcity are as shown above. Aridity is the major cause of water scarcity in Ndunguni sub location. The area experiences long periods of drought every year. The short rains are from October to December and long rains march to May. Usually the rains are as less as 450mm, the dry periods are about 6months with no rainfall. At this time all crops and water sources dry up. When the yields are less the region experiences food shortages and it calls for relief food supply from donors and the government.
Salinity is also a factor because some of the water sources available are saline thus not fit for agricultural purposes. The distance to which it can be obtained and inadequate sources especially during the dry seasons to supplement for irrigation. According to December survey, 2016, most of the residents obtain water far away distances of more than 5km from dry river beds by excavating sand dams. According to WHO, 20l/day/capita for domestic use is the minimum stardand .the residents are only able to acess 10l/day/capiter or less which is below the required threshold.

Fig 5. Above shows some effects of water scarcity on agriculture in Ndunguni area. The severity increases depending on how water is scarce. The impacts of water scarcity in the area are low crop yields or no yields which cause food insecurity, water sources dry leading to lack of water for domestic use and for agricultural purposes and this worsens to causing deaths of animals and at times people due to malnutrition as a subject to water scarcity.

Plate 3 above shows a sand dam and an uptake well-constructed by Inyamandu CBO of in collaboration with government of Kenya, to aid availing water for irrigation activities. The sand dam is fully silted, and the uptake well has dried up due to inadequate rains, siltation and prolonged drought. Thus there is no water during the dry seasons for any use. The sand dam provides water for shorter periods usually for 4-5 weeks during rainy seasons.
4.3Copying with water scarcity in agriculture
4.3.1 Diversification of crop
The main food crops produced are cereals, maize, millets and sorghum, legumes, green grams, beans, cowpeas and pigeon peas, and tuber crops like cassava and sweet potatoes. Green grams effectively tolerate and escape drought. Others include sisal and cotton as well as fruits.

4.3.2 Enhance use of sand dams to hold runoffs
During dry periods, the water held by sand dams can be used to supplement irrigation as there is a lot of runoff and water in the rivers during rainy seasons. As shown in plate 4 below,which illustrates Tiva river with water full to capity during 2016 short rains. The existind sand dams need to be desilted to improve their water holding capacity.

Fig 6. Above shows early timing and use of drought resistant crops as the most preferred method of adopting to water scarcity in this area. Only a few who live near water sources practice irrigation. They practice bucket irrigation and a few do drip irrigation. This is constrained by unavailability of water and the distance to such sources. It gives information on how farmers cope with water scarcity so as to try to have some harvests. Majority of farmers do timing of planting seasons when rains start as rain is the major source of water for crop growing in this area and plant drought resilient crops as others do irrigation.

Fig 7. Shows the maize varieties grown in this area. Katumani and DH02 are the most maize varieties. grown in Ndunguni area. This is because the varieties mature faster with little rain and are tolerant to the harsh conditions in this area such as, high temperatures (23˚c average annual temperatures), minimal moisture. They are deep rooted crops with stay green rooted characteristics.
Plate 5 above shows a maize farm with maize crop varieties (katumani) wilting due to moisture deficit, and high temperatures which increase evapotranspiration.
According to one of the agricultural officers, a resident of this area, Katumani is said to mature in 2 ½ months with as little as 450mm of rain in its growing season .Previous studies show that, crops which are drought resistant are used in coping with water scarcity in arid and semi-arid areas, irrigation methods such as drip irrigation which uses less water are adopted and mulching is also used to reduce evapotranspiration in crops. Early planting is done by timing the most appropriate time for planting crops when rains start. Fertilizers are used to boost the fertility of the soil which boost crop development and yield production. Conservation tillage is another method used which involves, no tillage, ridge tillage and mulch tillage. These help in improving water infiltration to the soil for crop production, reduced erosion and holding runoff water which is used by the crops to grow.

4.3Link between water scarcity and agriculture
Water is the backbone of agriculture. Without water agriculture cannot be achieved. Thus, it invites for availability of water sources, both surface such as rivers, lakes, dams and rainwater harvesting as well as groundwater sources like boreholes and shallow wells to provide water for agriculture. Majorly, agricultural practices of this area are rain fed.
In this area, the water sources for agriculture are shown below in Fig 8.
These water sources are limited and in distances far away to be convenient for irrigation to those living far away. The area has 3 boreholes, which are, Inyamandu borehole, Ndandini water project borehole and Kathome borehole water supply. Only Inyamandu borehole is functional in domestic water supply but the water is too concentrated with minerals such as Sodium and therefore not fit for agriculture.

This water is usually salty even difficult to use for domestic purposes. Overreliance on sand dams on dry river beds by the community for all water uses lead to drying of such sources and little water is available for irrigation where a few people use bucket irrigation or generators to pump water for irrigating crops.
4.4 Relationship between the variables. Dependent (agriculture) and independent (water scarcity)
Water for agriculture may be scarce due to some factors such as, inadequate rainfall, aridity, salinity of ground water sources like boreholes, increased demand from domestic, commercial and other demands.
Generally, agriculture cannot take place without water, thus when there is a deficit in water, agricultural sector suffers a lot. In some instances, irrigation is used to supplement the existing moisture to the soil but in this area, the sources are scarce.
Food production of this area implies that agricultural water scarcity results from inadequate infiltration of rain to the soil, which limits food production potential. . Crop production critically depends on plant roots taking up soil moisture, transporting it up to the leaves to balance transpiration losses during the intake of airborne carbon dioxide associated with photosynthesis. Plant growth is thus a function of water accessibility in the root zone.
Under conditions of deficiency, irrigation water may be added during the crop growing season. The rain fed agriculture accounts for 84% of the consumptive use of water required for crop production. (Falkenmark M, 2013). When the rainfall falls below 500mm /yr. the agricultural water requirement is thus recognized as scarce and insufficient for average crop water requirement crops such as maize.

Figure 9, shows the relationship between rainfall and the minimum crop water requirement. It shows the critical conditions where the crop water requirement line meets the precipitation curve. Ndunguni area getting 350–500 mm yr−1. This means that without irrigation to complement, yields would be fluctuating between total crop failure during drought years and good yields in years with plenty of rain.

5.1Challenges facing agriculture
The Key agricultural challenges in this area the following;
Limited knowledge of the concept by many actors especially farmers on various ways to adopt sustainable agriculture without depending on the rainfall.
Limited investment by the government on agriculture especially on how to provide for alternative water source and seeds during planting seasons to those who cannot afford. Initiatives are mostly left to the private sector like self-help groups.
Poverty among the majority of farmers, they are more interested in finding the next meal than changing their way of farming.
5.2Recommendation and conclusion
Ways of reducing water scarcity risks vary between their type and scales, and might be thought of as components of a web of water security [59]. FAO stresses that there is a whole range of major strategies to cope with global water scarcity, including desalination of saline waters, re-use of wastewater, virtual water and food trade, increase in agricultural yields and improved water use efficiency in agriculture including the use of biotechnology.
The study recommends that, the government should provide for alternative sources of water such as extension of water supply, drilling community based boreholes for agriculture and also intensifying rain water harvesting through earth dams and water pans.
Creation of awareness and providence of incentives on sustainable agriculture such as irrigation to help fight food insecurity.
There is need for coordination between the government, NGOS and the existing cooperatives in elimination of poverty and establishing better ways of developing more water supplies for agriculture in this area.

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NAME ………………….. ……………………………………….
Gender: Male ( ) Female ( )
Age: 20-30 ( ) 30-40 ( ) 40-50( ) 50-60 ( ) Above 60 ( )
Occupation: Teacher ( ) Pastor ( ) Farmer ( ) Businessperson ( )
Others ( )……………………………………………….
Educational level: Illiterate ( ) Primary ( ) secondary ( )
Collage ( ) University ( )
Marital Status: Single ( ) Married ( ) widow/widowed ( ) Separated ( )

Please tick appropriately in the spaces provided below.
1. What are the causes of agricultural water scarcity in this area?
( ) Aridity
( ) Increased water demand
( ) Salinity
( ) Destruction of water catchment areas
( ) Others. Specify. ………………………………………………..

2. Which is the major source of water for agricultural use?
( ) Rainfall
( ) Rivers
( ) Shallow wells
( ) Boreholes
( ) Water pans
( ) Dams
( ) Others……………………………………………………………

3. What are the major impacts of water scarcity in this area?
( ) Reduced crop yields
( ) Food insecurity
( ) Drying of water sources
( ) others. Specify…………………………………………….

4 .a). Are there any irrigation activities in this area?
Yes ( ) No ( )
b).If yes, specify which one
Drip Irrigation ( ) basin irrigation ( ) Overhead Irrigation (sprinkler) ( ) Bucket irrigation ( ) Furrow irrigation ( ) Trickle irrigation ( )

b).What is the approximate size of the land you own?
Less than 1 acre ( )
1-5 acres ( )
5-10 acres ( )
More than 10 acres ( )

5. What crops are grown in this area?
Maize ( ) Sorghum ( ) Millet ( ) Beans ( ) cow peas ( ) cassava ( ) others……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6. What is the distance to the nearest water source?
Less than 200 m ( )
200-1km ( )
1-2 km ( )
More than 2 km ( )

1. Are you able to meet your 3 meals every day?
Yes ( )
No ( )
If No, how many times can you afford?
Once ( )
Twice ( )
Difficult ( )

2. How do you cope with water scarcity in this area especially in crop production?
Timing of planting seasons ( )
Use of drought resilient crops ( )
Irrigation ( )
Others. Specify. …………………………………………………………………